Saturday, June 30, 2012

Culture

After the conflict with the British, Gurkhas have enjoyed considerable fame in various battlefields. The name originally referred to people from central Nepal, but ever since the conquest of Nepal by Gurkha kings, the word Gurkha is liberally applied to those who speak Nepali.
Gurkhas in the modern world are now essentially a mixture of various mountain tribes from the Himalayas, e.g. Gurungs, Rais, Limbus, Thapas, Magars, etc. Every tribe has its own characteristics.
Almost all Gurkha tribes have their own dialect and/or accent of Nepali; anyone who has been to Nepal will realize that the Nepali spoken in western Nepal is considerably different than the Nepali spoken in Eastern Nepal. The same holds true for Nepali cuisine.
The trademark Khukuri, ever since the dawn of the Gurkhas, has been made by a "Kami" (pronounced as "kah mee"), a community of blacksmiths. Many serving Gurkha soldiers order their custom Khukuris to be made by the Kami while on leave.

History

Sri Panch (5) Maharaja Dhiraj Prthivi Narayan Shahdev
In the Gurkha War (1814–1816) they waged war against the British East India Company army. The British were impressed by the Gurkha soldiers and after reaching a stalemate with the Gurkhas, made Nepal a protectorate.[3] A soldier of the 87th Foot wrote in his memoirs: "I never saw more steadiness or bravery exhibited in my life. Run they would not, and of death they seemed to have no fear, though their comrades were falling thick around them". Much later, they were granted the right to freely hire them as mercenaries from the interior of Nepal. Originally Jung Bahadur and his brother Ranodip Singh brought a lot of modernisation to Nepalese society, the abolition of slavery, undermining of taboos regarding the untouchable class, public access to education, etc. But these dreams were short lived when in the coup d'├ętat of 1885 the nephews of Jung Bahadur and Ranodip Singh (the Shumshers J.B., S.J.B. or Satra (17) Family) murdered Ranodip Singh and the sons of Jung Bahadur, stole the name of Jung Bahadur and took control of Nepal.[3][4] This "Shumsher" Rana rule is regarded by some[who?] as one of the reasons for Nepal lagging behind in modern development. The children of Jung Bahadur and Ranodip Singh lived mainly outside of Kathmandu, in Nepal, and in India after escaping the coup d'├ętat of 1885.[3]
Sri Teen (3) Maharaja Jung Bahadur Rana
The Gurkha soldier recruits were mainly drawn from several ethnic groups. When the British began recruiting from the interior of Nepal, the majority of these soldiers were drawn from the Kirat people, such as Tamang, Magar, Gurung, Rai and Limbu.[5] However, other ethnics group also are recruited by British Army Brigade of Gurkhas and Indian Army Gurkha Regiment.
After the British left India, Gorkhalis continued seeking employment in British and Indian forces, as officers and soldiers. Under international law, present-day British Gurkhas are not treated as mercenaries but are fully integrated soldiers of the British Army, operate in formed units of the Brigade of Gurkhas, and abide by the rules and regulations under which all British soldiers serve.
The Gurkha war cry is "Jai Mahakali, Ayo Gorkhali" which literally translates to "Glory be to the Goddess Kali, here come the Gorkhas!"
Professor Sir Ralph Lilley Turner, MC, who served with the 3rd Queen Alexandra's Own Gurkha Rifles in the First World War, wrote of Gurkhas:
As I write these last words, my thoughts return to you who were my comrades, the stubborn and indomitable peasants of Nepal. Once more I hear the laughter with which you greeted every hardship. Once more I see you in your bivouacs or about your fires, on forced march or in the trenches, now shivering with wet and cold, now scorched by a pitiless and burning sun. Uncomplaining you endure hunger and thirst and wounds; and at the last your unwavering lines disappear into the smoke and wrath of battle. Bravest of the brave, most generous of the generous, never had country more faithful friends than you.

British East India Company Army

Hindu Rao's house shortly after the siege.
Gurkhas served as troops under contract to the East India Company in the Pindaree War of 1817, in Bharatpur in 1826 and the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars in 1846 and 1848.[6]
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Gurkhas fought on the British side, and became part of the British Indian Army on its formation. The 8th (Sirmoor) Local Battalion made a particularly notable contribution during the conflict, and indeed twenty-five Indian Order of Merit awards were made to men from that regiment during the Siege of Delhi.[7] Three days after the mutiny began, the Sirmoor Battalion were ordered to move to Meerut, where the British garrison was barely holding on, and in doing so they had to march up to 48 kilometres a day.[8] Later, during the four month Siege of Delhi they defended Hindu Rao's house, losing 327 out of 490 men. During this action they fought side by side with the 60th Rifles and a strong bond developed.[9][10] Twelve regiments from the Nepalese Army also took part in the relief of Lucknow[11] under the command of Shri Teen (3) Maharaja Maharana Jung Bahadur of Nepal and his older brother C-in-C Ranaudip Singh (Ranodip or Ranodeep) Bahadur Rana (later to succeed Jung Bahadur and become Sri Teen Maharaja Ranodip Singh of Nepal).
After the rebellion the 60th Rifles pressed for the Sirmoor Battalion to become a rifle regiment. This honour was granted then next year (1858) when the Battalion was renamed the Sirmoor Rifle Regiment and awarded a third colour.[12] In 1863 Queen Victoria presented the regiment with the Queen's Truncheon, as a replacement for the colours that rifle regiments do not usually have.[13]

British Indian Army (c. 1857–1947)

Gurkha Soldiers (1896). The centre figure wears the dark green dress uniform worn by all Gurkhas in British service, with certain regimental distinctions
From the end of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 until the start of the World War I the Gurkha Regiments saw active service in Burma, Afghanistan, the North-East Frontier and the North-West Frontiers of India, Malta (the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78), Cyprus, Malaya, China (the Boxer Rebellion of 1900) and Tibet (Younghusband's Expedition of 1905).
Between 1901 and 1906, the Gurkha regiments were renumbered from the 1st to the 10th and redesignated as the Gurkha Rifles. In this time, the Brigade of Gurkhas, as the regiments came to be collectively known, was expanded to twenty battalions within the ten regiments.[14]
During World War I (1914–18), more than 200,000 Gurkhas served in the British Army, suffering approximately 20,000 casualties, and receiving almost 2,000 gallantry awards.[15] The number of Gurkha battalions was increased to thirty-three, and Gurkha units were placed at the disposal of the British high command by the Nepalese government for service on all fronts. Many Nepalese volunteers served in noncombat roles, serving in units such as the Army Bearer Corps and the labour battalions, but there were also large numbers that served in combat in France, Turkey, Palestine, and Mesopotamia.[16] They served on the battlefields of France in the Loos, Givenchy, Neuve Chapelle and Ypres; in Mesopotamia, Persia, Suez Canal and Palestine against Turkish advance, Gallipoli and Salonika.[17] One detachment served with Lawrence of Arabia, while during the Battle of Loos (June–December 1915) a battalion of the 8th Gurkhas fought to the last man, hurling themselves time after time against the weight of the German defences, and in the words of the Indian Corps commander, Lieutenant-General Sir James Willcocks, "... found its Valhalla".[18] During the ultimately unsuccessful Gallipoli campaign in 1915, the Gurkhas were among the first to arrive and the last to leave. The 1st/6th Gurkhas, having landed at Cape Helles, led the assault during the first major operation to take out a Turkish high point, and in doing so captured a feature that later became known as "Gurkha Bluff".[19] At Sari Bair they were the only troops in the whole campaign to reach and hold the crest line and look down on the Straits, which was the ultimate objective.[20] The 2nd Battalion of the 3rd Gurkha Rifles (2nd/3rd Gurkha Rifles) was involved in the conquest of Baghdad.
2nd/5th Royal Gurkha Rifles, North-West Frontier 1923
Following the end of the war, the Gurkhas were returned to India and during the interwar years, they were largely kept away from the internal strife and urban conflicts of the sub-continent, instead being employed largely on the frontiers and in the hills where fiercely independent tribesmen were a constant source of troubles.[21] As such, between the World Wars, the Gurkha regiments fought in the Third Afghan War in 1919 and then participated in numerous campaigns on the North-West Frontier, mainly in Waziristan, where they were employed as garrison troops defending the frontier, keeping the peace amongst the local populace and keeping the lawless and often openly hostile Pathan tribesmen in check. During this time the North-West Frontier was the scene of considerable political and civil unrest and the troops stationed at Razmak, Bannu and Wanna saw an extensive amount of action.[22]
During World War II (1939–45), there were ten Gurkha regiments, with two battalions each making a total of twenty pre-war battalions.[23] Following the evacuation of the BEF from Dunkirk in 1940, the Nepalese government offered to increase recruitment to increase the total number of Gurkha battalions in British service to thirty-five.[24] This would eventually rise to forty-five battalions and in order to achieve this, third and fourth battalions were raised for all ten regiments, with fifth battalions also being raised for 1 GR, 2 GR and 9 GR.[23] This expansion required ten training centres to be established for basic training and regimental records across India. In addition five training battalions[25] were raised, while other units[26] were raised as garrison battalions for keeping the peace in India and defending rear areas.[27] Large numbers of Gurkha men were also recruited for non-Gurkha units, and other specialised functions such as paratroops, signals, engineers, and military police.
Whispers of Gurkha war tactics quickly became legend among Axis soldiers. Stories of shadowy troops began to circulate; Gurkha soldiers who would break into German barracks at night. The stories went that the Gurkhas would quietly make their way through the soldiers; the first soldier in the line of beds would have his throat slit in his sleep, the second would have his bootlaces cut, and so on in that fashion. When a German soldier would wake up to see that the man on either side of him was dead, he would panic and immediately go for his boots; only to find that the laces were cut. They would be horrified to see this sign that they could have been killed as well.
The 2/5th Royal Gurkha Rifles marching through Kure soon after their arrival in Japan in May 1946 as part of the Allied forces of occupation.
A total of 250,280[27] Gurkhas served during the war, in almost all theatres. In addition to keeping peace in India, Gurkhas fought in Syria, North Africa, Italy, Greece and against the Japanese in the jungles of Burma, northeast India and also Singapore.[28] They did so with considerable distinction, earning 2,734 bravery awards in the process[27] and suffering around 32,000 casualties in all theatres.[29]

Gurkha military rank system in the British Indian Army

Gurkha ranks in the British Indian Army followed the same pattern as those used throughout the rest of the Indian Army at that time.[30] As in the British Army itself, there were three distinct levels: private soldiers, non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers. Commissioned officers within the Gurkha regiments held a Viceroy's Commission, which was distinct from the King's or Queen's Commission that British officers serving with a Gurkha regiment held. Any Gurkha holding a commission was technically subordinate to any British officer, regardless of rank.[31]

British Indian Army and current Indian Army ranks/current British Army equivalents[32]

Viceroy Commissioned Officers (VCOs) up to 1947 and Junior Commissioned Officers (JCOs) from 1947
Warrant officers
Non-commissioned officers
Private soldiers
Notes
  • British Army officers received Queen's or King's Commissions, but Gurkha officers in this system received the Viceroy's Commission. After Indian independence in 1947, Gurkha officers in regiments which became part of the British Army received the King's (later Queen's) Gurkha Commission, and were known as King's/Queen's Gurkha Officers (KGO/QGO). Gurkha officers had no authority to command troops of British regiments. The QGO Commission was abolished in 2007.
  • Jemadars and subedars normally served as platoon commanders and company 2ICs, but were junior to all British officers, while the subedar major was the Commanding Officer's advisor on the men and their welfare. For a long time it was impossible for Gurkhas to progress further, except that an honorary lieutenancy or captaincy was very rarely bestowed upon a Gurkha on retirement.[31]
  • The equivalent ranks in the post-1947 Indian Army were (and are) known as Junior Commissioned Officers (JCOs). They retained the traditional rank titles used in the British Indian Army — Jemadar (later Naib Subedar), Subedar and Subedar Major.
  • While in principle any British subject may apply for a commission without having served in the ranks, Gurkhas cannot. It was customary for a Gurkha soldier to rise through the ranks and prove his ability before his regiment would consider offering him a commission.[31]
  • From the 1920s, Gurkhas could also receive King's Indian Commissions, and later full King's or Queen's Commissions, which put them on a par with British officers. This was rare until after the Second World War.
  • Gurkha officers commissioned from the Royal Military Academy – Sandhurst – and Short Service Officers regularly fill appointments up to the rank of major. At least two Gurkhas have been promoted to lieutenant colonel and there is theoretically now no bar to further progression.[31]
  • After 1948, the Brigade of Gurkhas (part of the British Army) was formed and adopted standard British Army rank structure and nomenclature, except for the three Viceroy Commission ranks between Warrant Officer 1 and Second Lieutenant (jemadar, subedar and subedar major) which remained, albeit with different rank titles Lieutenant (Queens Gurkha Officer), Captain (QGO) and Major (QGO). The QGO commission was abolished in 2007, Gurkha soldiers are currently commissioned as Late Entry Officers (as above).[31]

Regiments of the Gurkha Rifles (c.1815–1947)

Second World War training battalions

  • 14th Gurkha Rifles Training Battalion[33]
  • 38th Gurkha Rifles Training Battalion[33]
  • 56th Gurkha Rifles Training Battalion[33]
  • 710th Gurkha Rifles Training Battalion[33]

Post-independence (1947–present)

THE GURKHA
SOLDIER
Bravest of the brave,
most generous of the generous,
never had country
more faithful friends
than you.
Professor Sir Ralph Turner MC[34]
After Indian independence—and partition—in 1947 and under the Tripartite Agreement, the original ten Gurkha regiments consisting of the twenty pre-war battalions were split between the British Army and the newly independent Indian Army.[27] Six Gurkha regiments (twelve battalions) were transferred to the post-independence Indian Army, while four regiments (eight battalions) were transferred to the British Army.[35]
To the disappointment of their British officers the majority of Gurkhas giv
HISTORY OF THE NEPALESE ARMY


Nepal – The Land and the People

Nepal lies along the mountains of the central portion of the Himalayas. This rectangular piece of South Asia has acted as an important bridge linking two ancient civilizations of the Asian continent – China in the North and India in the South. The land slopes downwards from the almost impenetrable and mighty Himalayan wall of the North until it reaches the Southern fertile Tarai plains. The narrow track of Tarai plains was once covered by thick tropical forest known as the Char Kose Jhadi. This malarial curtain kept settlements out until recently when the forests started being cleared and people from all directions came to settle down, making it the fastest growing habitated area in the country. India lies to the South of the Tarai. The river Mechi flowing from North to South is the Eastern border and the river Mahakali makes up the Western border of Nepal. Nepal was once much more extensive and included the present-day Indian Kumaun and Gadhwal and all the hill country West to the river Sutlej.

Between the Himalayas and the Tarai plains lie two mountain ranges running from West to East broken only by streams and rivers that run from North to South. These natural furrows have acted as natural barriers against the movement of people from one part of the country to the other which meant that the isolated communities could enjoy their own unique lifestyles without hindrance from others. The Mahabharat range reaching up to 10,000 ft in height takes up the largest area of the country and most of the Nepalese live on the slopes and valleys of this range. The Chure or Siwalik range, a single file of sandstone hills running from the East to the West, not exceeding 300 to 600 feet from the base, is the outer border of the mountainous ranges. The Tarai lies to the South of Chure and serves as the rice bowl of Nepal today.

The Nepal Himalayas consist of four major massifs making the formidable Northern wall throughout the length of the country-Nanda Devi (25,700 feet); Dhaulagiri (26,826 feet); Gosainthan (26,305); and Kanchanjunga (28,156 feet). The 29,028 feet Mount Everest lies roughly midway and gives off no main ridges.

The climate of Nepal varies according to the landscape. Farther North, between the Great Himalaya and the Tibetan marginal mountains, lie the Bhot valleys, which resemble in almost every respect the Tibetan landscape. The Bhot valleys offer a typically tundra climate, with cool summers and very cold winters. The Southern Tarai and inner valleys have a hot, humid, tropical climate. The centrally located mountain and hilly areas offer conditions between these two extremes. In spite of the great variations available, the climate can generally be described as temperate.

The mountains stop the monsoon winds blowing from the Southeast providing the country with plenty of rains from June to September. However, the winds get drier as they flow West making the Eastern parts wetter than the West. Small amounts of winter rain are also brought by winds from the Arabian Sea. Due to the influence of topography, great variations in the amount of rainfall are found even in rather small localities. The rain shadow areas of the Tibetan plateau, which contain the Northernmost parts of Nepal, get very little rain, some years not at all. Given the narrowness of the rectangle, as the breadth of Nepal does not cover more than five degrees in latitude in any part, the range in climate is striking. The climatic variations offer a sanctuary for a wide variety of plant and animal species. The biodiversity is one of the richest even though the area of the land mass is small.

This diversity in climate, plants and animals is matched only by the diversity of people and their individual lifestyles. Within such a small geographical area many different ethnic groups have settled on the slopes of separate mountains and in valleys. Throughout the ages, people from North, South, East and West settled in these parts bringing in their influences to create a unique culture. Records show that some 93 different languages are spoken in Nepal, besides the Nepali language itself. These people have lived in the difficult terrain for centuries toiling hard for a simple lifestyle. Their hospitality and honesty have been highly regarded throughout the world. They have learned to use the mountains not only for their livelihood and lifestyle but for their security as well. The harsh conditions and independent mindset nurtured the strong martial spirit of the Nepalese people, which has been well known throughout history. Ancient scriptures reflect that Nepalese forces had fought even during the Mahabharat war.

The rugged landscape offers some passes, albeit for only hardened human beings, to traverse. These breaks or passes have served as strategic points for contacts between the Northern and Southern civilizations since time immemorial. There are more than half a dozen passes through the Nepal Himalayas leading to the Tibetan plateau that have been regularly used to this day.

Apart from the numerous streams which originate in the mountainous country before furrowing their way to the South, three main rivers provide some basin landscapes in Nepal. The snow fed rivers rise in the Himalayas and provide a perennial source of water for irrigation, transportation and the like. They are: the Western basin of the Karnali, Central basin of the Gandaki and the Eastern basin of the Koshi.

The Origin of History

Recorded history of Nepal begins after 350 BC. Documented evidences, apart from the scriptures, are not available for periods before that. Different kings of different dynasties like Gopal, Mahishpal, Kirat and Lichchabi had ruled over this country during the Pauranic (ancient) Age. Capturing other principalities and invading territories through armed might was common practice. Records show that the institution of the army was initiated just after 350 AD. In those days, the neighboring countries, including China, Tibet and Southern states, known as India today, had armies of their own. Nepal had also maintained her military strength according to documents of the reigns of prominent Lichchavi kings, including Mandev, Shiva Dev, Narendra Dev and Anshuvarma. King Narendra Dev’s Nepal had extended the cooperation of 7,000 cavalry and 3,500 infantry troops in the year 647 AD at the request of China to attack a Southern kingdom.

The armed forces used to be centrally located during the ancient times, whereas, in the middle age, they were deployed in vital locations like fortresses in strategically important places of the country. The commander of the fortress was called "Kwantha Nayak" and they were very powerful. The Malla dynasties ruled Nepal in the middle age. Newar Malla kings ruled over Kathmandu valley and the surrounding areas while the Karnali region was ruled by Khas Malla kings, who had maintained powerful armies. King Jitari Malla had attacked Kathmandu valley but the Khas Malla forces were ignobly defeated by the Newari Malla soldiers.

During this period, Nepal was divided into fifty different principalities which meant that military strength remained dispersed. Soldiers were maintained by the kings, princes, chiefs of army, mulmi, kwantha nayaks and umraos. These traditional ranks were prestigious positions in the army. Since some of the principalities were stronger than the others, there were continuous clashes. In Kathmandu valley, and also in Doti, it is now known that Indian mercenaries had also been used. The significance of military might derived from the Pauranic Age was well understood and used liberally.

The 1700s was a century of uncertainty throughout the world. Rivalry among states was not confined to this part of the planet. The world military powers like Britain, France and Portugal were busy creating colonies in different parts. Clashes in their interests resulted in wars in different countries. Britain and France were also moving towards South and Southeast Asia. This threatened Nepal as well.

The British East India Company had already captured major parts of India and was moving forward towards the Northeast and approaching Nepal. Nepal was divided into many principalities during this period. It was at this time that King Prithvi Narayan Shah, hailing from one of the principalities called Gorkha, decided to unify Nepal. He was the architect of modern Nepal. Although, Gorkha was small and economically weak, King Prithvi Narayan Shah astounded the world by carrying out such a challenging task under such difficult circumstances. The Unification Campaign was initiated in 1740 AD at which time the British had already started colonizing the Indian provinces.

This was a turning point in the history of the Nepalese army (NA). Since unification was not possible without a strong army, the management of the armed forces had to be exceptional. Apart from the standard army being organized in Gorkha, technicians and experts had to be brought in from abroad to manufacture war materials. After the Gorkhali troops finally captured Kathmandu (then known as Nepal), the Gorkhali armed forces came to be known as the Nepalese Army.

Their gallantry, sincerity and simplicity impressed even the enemy, so much so, that the British East- India Company started recruiting Nepalese into their forces. Since the British had fought against the Nepalese Army, which was till that time, still colloquially known as "Army of Gorkha" or "Gorkhali" army, the British took to calling their new soldiers "Gurkhas". Hence, in essence, the “Gorkha” heritage belongs, first and foremost, to the Nepalese Army.

There is still some misunderstanding that the Nepalese Army is a part of the British and Indian Armies. The Gurkha Rifles existing in India and Britain are part of foreign military organizations where Nepalese are recruited. The NA rightfully is the proud national army of sovereign and independent Nepal with an unbroken history since the year 1744. The fact that Nepal and the Nepalese people have never been subjugated by any colonial power is a significant achievement of the Nepalese Army. King Prithvi Narayan Shah the Great was the founder of the Nepalese Army.

The Unification Battles

Nuwakot, a strategic area in the Northwest of Kathmandu valley, belonged to the kingdom of Kathmandu. King Narabhupal Shah, the father of Prithvi Narayan Shah had tried to annex Nuwakot into Gorkha. But his attempt had failed. The first attempt by King Prithvi Narayan also failed. So, this was really the third attempt by the Gorkha King.

Kazi Kalu Pande, the Gorkhali commander, chalked out a strategy to mount a sudden attack against the defenders from an unexpected direction without giving the enemy opportunity for counterattack. When Kazi Kalu Pande began to climb up from the North, it was dawn of the 26th of September 1744. The defenders of Nuwakot were still sleeping. The Gorkhali forces reached Mahamandal, a tactical outpost in Nuwakot, and mounted a surprise attack there. Shankha Mani, the commander of the defenders, began to encourage his panic-stricken soldiers to stand up and fight against the Gorkhalis, but to no avail. He himself took a sword, charged forward and wounded a few Gorkhali soldiers. He had already sustained injuries. He advanced towards Dal Mardan Shah, brother of Prithvi Narayan Shah, and challenged him. Dal Mardan Shah was just 13 years old. Dal Mardan Shah answered the challenge and with a swift strike on Shankha Mani’s head, killed him on the spot. Kalu Pandey’s plans had proved successful.

Another group of Gorkhali soldiers led by Chautaria Mahadam Kirti Shah, another brother of Prithvi Narayan Shah, crossed Dharampani but met with strong resistance. The battle continued for a while and ultimately the Gorkhali forces prevailed. Many defenders died and the remaining fled.

The third group, led by King Prithvi Narayan Shah himself, began to advance swiftly towards Nuwakot Gadhi (fort) after receiving news of the capture of Mahamandal. The death of Shankha Mani had taken the wind out of the defenders’ sail. They began to flee towards Belkot instead of fighting. Kazi Kalu Pande reached Nuwakot with a small contingent of forces. Mahodam Kirti Shah also arrived. King Prithvi Narayan Shah entered the Nuwakot Gadhi fortress. Nuwakot was annexed to the Gorkha State. The first foothold in the process of unification of Nepal had been secured.

 


The Battel for Kirtipur

 

Over the next few years, this success was followed by a deliberate and practical strategy to lay general siege on the Kathmandu Valley from all directions. Another important step in the initial unification campaign was the conquering of Kirtipur, the fortress in the southern part of Kathmandu valley. Gorkhali troops had failed twice to secure Kirtipur. King Prithvi Narayan Shah changed his plan and encircled and blockaded the whole fort. A six-month long siege by the Gorkhali forces created panic among its inhabitants. The Kirtipur Commander, on 12th March, 1766, opened the gates of the fort at mid-night and surrendered to the Gorkhali forces. Kirtipur was annexed to Gorkha without any battle.

Similar blockade tactics also helped secure Makawanpur, south of Kathmandu Valley. Well known names like Mohaddam Kirti Shah, Surpratap Shah, Dalamardan Shah, Rana Rudra Shah, Nandu Shah, Kaji Bamsa Raj Pandey, Kaji Kehar Singh Basnyat, Kaji Nahar Singh Basnyat and Kaji Abhiman singh Basnyat were dispatched with about 1,100 fighting troops to encircle the Makawanpur fortress by the dawn of 20th August 1762.

King Digbardhan Sen and his minister Kanak Singh Baniya had already sent their families to safer grounds before the encirclement of their fortress. The Gorkhalis launched an attack on 21st August 1762. The battle lasted for eight hours. King Digbardhan and his minister Kanak Singh escaped to Hariharpur Gadhi. Makawanpur was thus annexed to Nepal.

After occupying the Makawanpur Gadhi fort, the Gorkhali forces started planning for an attack on Hariharpur Gadhi, a strategic fort on a mountain ridge of the Mahabharat range, also south of Kathmandu. It controlled the route to the Kathmandu valley. At the dusk of 4th October, 1762, the Gorkhalis launched the attack. The soldiers at Hariharpur Gadhi fought valiantly against the Gorkha forces, but were ultimately forced to vacate the Gadhi after mid-night. About 500 soldiers of Hariharpur died in the battle.

The unification process by Prithvi Narayan Shah continued after this death in 1775. The Kangra fort, now part of Himachal Pradesh of India, was kept under encirclement for three years during the unification battles by the Nepalese Army under the command of Bada Kazi Amar Singh Thapa. In the years that followed the death of King Pritvi Narayan Shah, his younger son Regent Bahadur Shah and others had succeeded in extending Nepal to the Sutlej river (now in India) and beyond in the West and Sikkim and Bhutan to the East. The Kangra fort, situated on top of a hill about 64 Kilometers from the Vyas river, was considered impregnable and had a great strategic and military importance.

Sansar Chand, the king of Kangra, was unpopular even amongst his countrymen. Amar Singh Thapa camped his forces at Jwalamukhi, from where a contingent of Nepali forces laid seige to the Kangra fort. Sansar Chand sent a message to Amar singh Thapa saying he intended to give up control of the Kangra fort and Tara Gadh and hand them over to him. He asked for a period of ten days to do so. Amar Singh Thapa withdrew his forces from the gates of Ganesh valley. But Sansar Chand was just buying time and secretly approaching Ranjit Singh of Punjab for help. Ranjit Singh along with his 1,500 Sikh soldiers reached the Kangra fort, dodging the Nepalese. He launched a multipronged attack against the Nepali forces. The first battle was fought at Ganesh valley, the second at Gorkha Tila and the last at Malkan da. A fierce fight raged in the Ganesh valley, where both sides suffered heavy casualties. The Sikhs made a retreat but again attacked in the evening. The Nepali forces had to give up some positions in the battle. Ultimately, a peace treaty was signed between the opposite camps. The Nepali forces had to fall back to Sutlej river on 24th August, 1809. The battle of Kangra was the last of the unification battles, except for the annexation of Palpa which was accomplished after the death of Regent Prince Bahadur Shah.

 

Defending a Nation in the Making

If the unification battles brought the bravery of the Gorkhalis into the limelight, that bravery was to be tested to the limits by the wars they had to fight to preserve the fledgling Kingdom. The stories that follow show how the Nepalese forces kept up their reputation even during adverse circumstances. They were almost always vastly outnumbered and outgunned, but rarely out-soldiered.

Battle against Mir Kassim - 1763 AD

The fortress of Makawanpur has a historical and military significance for the Nepalese. It was here that the Nepalese defeated superior forces of Mir Qasim and seized 500 guns and two cannons. Later on, these weapons were used by Nepalese troops and four regular companies were established, namely, Sri Nath, Kalibox, Barda Bahadur (Bardabahini) and Sabuj. (Purano) Gorakh Company was established a few months later. It was the first rank and file system beginning the modern organizational history of the Nepalese Army. The battle against Mir Qasim’s troops was the first battle of the Nepalese Army against a foreign power.

Sardar Nandu Shah was the fortress Commander of Makawanpur with 400 troops, some guns and home-made traditional weapons like Dhanu (bows), Khukuri, Talwar (swords), Ghuyatro (sling shot) etc. They devised different hit-and-run strategies to surprise the enemy. For instance, a night spoiling attack base was set up on the Taplakhar mountain ridge.

Mir Qassim's renowned warrior, Gurgin Khan commanded about 2,500 troops with cannons, guns, ammunition and superior logistics back up. Their attack base was at the bottom of the Makawanpur Gadhi hill. They had planned a night attack. When the enemy’s heavy forces marched on December 1762 and arrived at Harnamadi in January 1763, they found all the local houses already evacuated and the area short of food provisions. Makawanpur Gadhi was on top of a mountain, about nine kilometers uphill from the Harnamadi area. Although the Nepalese had physically occupied all the fortresses enroute, the enemy was able to initially push them back to the Makawanpur Gadhi area.

About 300 troops launched a strong attack on 20th January 1763 putting the Nepalese even more on the defensive. But they were totally surprised by the preplanned spoiling sttack when they were resting in Taplakhar, where Kaji Bamsa Raj Pandey led a downhill attack on them. Kaji Naharsigh Basnyat led an uphill attack from below them and Nandu Shah led a frontal attack. The smooth coordination among the three, leading their, by now battle-hardened, troops in the dark of the night, led the bewildered enemy to scatter. About 1700 of them died and 30 Nepalese soldiers were lost in that battle. The Nepalese captured 500 rifles and two canons with other military equipment. More importantly, the battle led to the beginning of a modern reorganization of the Nepalese Army.

Defeating the Kinloch Campaign- 1767 AD

King Jayaprakash Malla of Kantipur was in search of foreign military help against the Gorkhali military campaign. He decided to seek urgent military assistance from East India Company’s Consular General of Betiya, Mr. Goulding, in March 1767. King Prithvi Narayan Shah for his part sent a message to the British asking them not to help the Malla King. But the company ignored the message and a threatening letter was sent to King Prithvi Narayan Shah to fall back to Gorkha and not to block the trade routes to Kathmandu Valley.

Captain Kinloch, a veteran of many campaigns, was the Commander of about 2,400 well armed and equipped men. He planned to advance from Patna (India) to Panauti (Kabhrepalanchok). Kinloch marched from Patna on 17th August 1767. But when they were marching form Dhungrebas to Sindhuli Gadhi, the Nepalese troops launched ferocious surprise attacks from both front and rear, routing the column. Captain Kinloch managed to escape with about 1600 men. Kinloch fell back to Janakpur with his surviving troops. He planned to launch another offensive via the Bagmati river and the target was Hariharpur Gadhi. He reorganized and regrouped his surviving troops.His second military expedition started towards Hariharpur Gadhi on 20th September 1767. But the adverse weather conditions and the swelling river stalled his advance.

Prithvi Narayan Shah deployed Kaji Ram Krishna Kunwar with reinforcements at Hariharpur Gadhi. When Kinloch received the news he lost heart. He was physically restricted by the flooded Bagmati and mentally harassed by the Nepalese Army tactics. With low morale among the troops, Kinloch reluctantly retreated to India in disgrace after a small battle.

Anglo-Nepal War 1814 AD – 1816 AD

Border tensions and ambitious expansionism led to the inevitable Anglo-Nepal War in 1814. Nepal was in difficulty due to shortage of war materials as the Nepalese had been fighting continuously for half a century, ever since the unification process began. Huge amount of resources were spent on the first and second wars against the Tibetans. And now, they had to fight the numerically superior and well equipped British. The commanders of the Nepalese Army were hard pushed to concentrate the troops in time because they remained over extended and scattered in many places between the Tista river in the East to the Alakhnanda of Gadhwal in the West. Bada Kaji Amar Singh Thapa, Sardar Bhakti Thapa and Captain Bir Balabhadra Kunwar were not in favour of war with the British at the time, but, Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa and his officers had calculated otherwise. Nepal had about 14,000 troops. They had some pieces of cannons and about 4,000 rifles to fight the British.

The Nepal-East India Company war was a painful ordeal for Nepal. About half of the Nepalese territory was lost in this war. But the battles also proved the fighting mettle of the Nepalese under severely adverse conditions. The British military strategy against Nepal was to launch multiple offensives to split reaction while primarily threatening Kathmandu directly. Their strategy was to capture the whole of Kumaun and Gadhwal, Bushair in what is now a part of India’s Himanchal Pradesh and adjoining hill states. The British also wanted to free other areas from Gorkha control. For this they would have to contain the Sikhs and the Marathas through alliances. They would also need to pacify the Chinese. The British made a detailed plan for a huge offensive thrust against Nepal, which was designed to divide the Nepalese forces into fragments. Their armed forces not only greatly outnumbered the Nepalese side but had far superior weapons. Major General Marley led the first division to seize the pass at Makawanpur as a preliminary step to advance to Kathmandu. Major General John Sullivan Wood led the second division. Major General Rollow Gillespie had the third division under his command and his aim was to advance to Deharadun via Saharanpur and then reach Srinagar. Colonel David Ochterlony was given the fourth division to advance through Bilaspur- Ramgadh, Arki/Malaun-Subathu-Jaithak and then link up with Gilliespie’s troops. Captain B Latter was given approximately 2,400 troops to secure a firm base and provide flank protection to Major General Marley’s troops from the Eastern direction.

Battle of Jitgadh 1814 AD

With the help of an ousted Palpali king, Major General Wood planned to march on Siuraj, Jit Gadhi and Nuwakot with a view to bypass the Butwol defenses, flushing out minor opposition on the axis, and assault Palpa from a less guarded flank.

Nepalese Colonel Ujir Singh Thapa had deployed his 1200 troops in many defensive positions including Jit Gadhi, Nuwakot Gadhi and Kathe Gadhi. The troops under Colonel Ujir were very disciplined and he himself was a dedicated and able commander. He was famous for exploiting advantage in men, material, natural resources and well versed in mountain tactics.

The British advance took place on 22nd Poush1871 BS (January 1814 AD) to Jit Gadh. While they were advancing to this fortress, crossing the Tinau River, the Nepalese troops opened fire from the fortress.

Another of the attackers’ columns was advancing to capture Tansen Bazar. Here too, Nepalese spoiling attacks forced the General to fall back to Gorakhpur. About 70 Nepalese lost their lives in Nuwakot Gadhi. Meanwhile, more than 300 of the enemy perished.

Battle of Makwanpur Gadhi 1814 AD

Major General Marley was tasked to occupy Hetauda and capture the fortresses of Hariharpur and Makawanpur before proceeding to Kathmandu. His frontage of advance lay between Rapati river and Bagmati river. After additional reinforcements, he had 12,000 troops for his offensive against the Makawanpur and Hariharpur axis. A big attack base was established but Major General Marley showed reluctance to take risks against the Nepalese. Some skirmishes had already started taking place. Similarly, Major General George Wood, sometimes known as the Tiger of the British Indian Army, proved exceedingly cautious against the hard charging Nepalese.

Colonel Ranabir Singh Thapa, brother of Bhimsen Thapa, was to be the Sector Commander of Makawanpur-Hariharpur axis. He was given a very large fortress and about 4,000 troops with old rifles and a few pieces of cannons. But the British could not move forward from the border. Colonel Ranabir Singh Thapa had been trying to lure the enemies to his selected killing area. But Major General Wood would not venture forward from Bara Gadhi and he eventually fell back to Betiya.

Battle of Hariharpur Gadhi 1815 AD

No special military action had taken place in Hariharpur Gadhi fortress in the first campaign. Major General Bannet Marley and Major General George Wood had not been able to advance for an offensive against Makawanpur and Hariharpur Gadhi fortresses.

Battle of Nalapani 1814 AD

Gillespie’s Army entered Dehradun well before the declaration of war. When Bal Bhadra Kunwar, commander of the Nepalese Army defences there, heard of the approach of the British Army and its size, he realized that it would be impossible to defend the city. He withdrew from Dehradun and moved his six hundred men, mainly of Purano Gorakh Batallion including dependents, to a hill Northeast of the city, where he took up position in the small fort of Nalapani, Khalanga.

The first British attack on Nalapani took place on 31st October, the day before the official declaration of war. Gillespie’s plan was to storm the fort from three sides. Under cover of fire, pioneers swarmed up to the walls, only to be cut down by the fearsome blast of Bal Bhadra’s cannon. Gillespie’s men fell back. Bravely, but perhaps a bit foolishly, Gilespie moved forward to rally his men but a Nepalese Army marksman got him. Marley and Wood never really recovered from the shock of Gillespie’s death, and even with very substantial reinforcements they could not be brought to engage the Nepalese Army in their respective areas of responsibility.

Major Mawbey, who was next in command at Nalapani, after reinforcement, bombarded the fort and breached the wall. The British forces then tried to storm the breach, but hesitated when they found their way blocked by sharpened bamboo sticks. The Nepalese Army troops fired on the attackers and drove them off. The day ended with the British withdrawing. British casualties for the day mounted to over five hundred men dead and wounded. And still Bal Bhadra held his position.

Mawbey then instructed his by now strongly reinforced gunners to fire into the fort, and he sent scouts out to discover the fort's water sources. The water supply was finally blocked, and the Nepalese were forced to evacuate the fort on 30 November, but Bal Bhadra and some seventy of his men were able to cut their way through and escape into the hills. This battle more than any other established the warrior reputation of the Gorkhalis. Balbhadra and his 600 had held against the might of the British/native troops for a month. Gen Gillipsie had been killed. Even with only 70 remaining survivors after his water source had been cut off, Balbhadra refused to surrender, instead charged out and successfully hacked their way through the seige. It set the tone for the rest of the campaign. To this day, the British made memorials still stand in Nalapani. One in the honour of Gillespie but the other, in the highest traditions of the British Army, in honour of "Our brave adversary Bul Buddur (Bal Bhadra) and his gallant men".

Battle of Jythak 1814 AD

Nalapani had cost both sides dearly, but in Nahan and Jaithak, further West, they were to suffer more. Kazi Amar Singh Thapa’s son, Ranajor Singh Thapa, was in command there. Nahan had been left undefended, and Ranajor Singh set up his defences at Jaithak on a ridge overlooking Nahan. Major-General Martindell, who had meanwhile assumed command of Gillespie’s forces, took possession of Nahan on 25 December and immediately set about preparations for the attack on Ranajor Singh’s positions.

The result of the first day’s battle at Jaithak was almost a repetition of the first day at Nala Pani for the British. They were the very troops who had fought at Nalapani - British grenadiers, not just the native sepoys. During the night of 25th December, Major Richards set out first taking his troops on a wide sixteen mile sweep around to the North to get into position for the attack on Ranajor Singh’s ridge, early the next morning. Major Ludlow, who led the attack up the Southern slope of the ridge, left camp in the early hours of the 26th. The combined force of British grenadiers and Indian sepoys carried on to a small ruined temple, where they were to await the attack by Major Richard’s party to the North. In the distance a small, lightly defended Nepalese Army stockade was seen which the British grenadiers in Ludlow’s force attacked to avenge the humiliation they were suffering. This was a questionable move as it meant abandoning the original battle plan.

Jaspao Thapa who had concealed the major part of his forces in a slight hollow behind that stockade, sent out flanking parties on both sides of the British troops. When the force of the British charge was broken on the stockade itself, these flankers caught the British in a deadly cross-fire. The Nepalese Army soldiers pursued the British down the mountain side. The Indian sepoys who were waiting in the assigned area to the rear were caught up in the rush of the retreat, which rapidly developed into a rout. Ludlow and his men, defeated and exhausted, arrived back in camp at the foot of the ridge before 1000 that morning, before, in fact, the attack had even been scheduled to begin.

Meanwhile, Major Richards and his men on the Northern approaches managed to secure a point on the top of the ridge and hold it throughout most of the day. But they were pinned down by Nepalese Army fire, and instead of reinforcing them, Martindell, fearing another Nalapani, ordered Richards and his men to retreat. This first day of battle at Jaithak cost the British over three hundred men dead and wounded and cooled Martindell’s ardour for battle. For over a month and a half, he refused to take any further initiative against the Nepalese Army. Thus by mid-February, of the four British commanders the Nepalese Army had faced till that time, Gillespie was dead, Marley had deserted, Wood was harassed into inactivity, and Martindell was practically incapacitated by over-cautiousness. It set the scene for Octorloney to soon show his mettle and change the course of the war.

 

Trying times for Nepalese Troops 1814 AD – 1816 AD

Out West, the Nepalese were hopelessly overextended. Kumaun, a key link in Nepalese Army communications with the Far West, was defended by a small force, numbering perhaps seven hundred and fifty men, with an equal number of Kumaoni irregulars, altogether about fifteen hundred men to defend a whole province. In addition, Doti which was to the East of Kumaun, had been practically stripped of troops. Bam Shah, as governor of Kumaun, had final responsibility for the defense of the province.

The British force, numbering initially over forty five hundred men, was easily able to out maneuver the Nepalese Army defenders and force them to abandon one post after another. Despite a significant victory over Captain Hearsey’s force, which had been sent on a flanking movement though Eastern Kumaun, and the capture of the captain himself, the Nepalese Army was unable to stem the tide of the British advance. Hasti Dal Shah arrived in Almora with a small body of reinforcement troops. A further reinforcement of four companies was sent from Kathmandu to aid the beleaguered defences of Kumaun, but the difficulties of communication through the hills prevented them from arriving in time to be of any help.

Meanwhile, Hastings sent Colonel Nicolls, Quartermaster-General for the British troops in India, to take charge of the Almora campaign and assigned two thousand regular troops to this front in addition to the very large number of irregulars already assigned to the area – all of this against fewer than one thousand Nepalese Army soldiers. Hasti Dal Shah and some five hundred Nepalese Army men had set out from Almora to secure Almora’s Northern line of communications with Kathmandu. This party was intercepted. Hasti Dal Shah, the ablest Nepalese Army commander in this sector, was killed in the first moments of the battle. The Nepalese Army suffered terrible losses. When word of this disaster reached the defenders at Almora, they were stunned. The British closed in on Almora and the Nepalese Army was unable to prevent the British advance. Subsequently, the British managed to establish gun positions within seventy yards of the gate of the fort at Almora and the British artillery demolished the walls of the fort at point blank range. Bam Shah surrendered Almora on 27th Arpil of 1815.

Hasti Dal Shah and some five hundred Nepalese Army men had set out from Almora to secure Almora’s Northern line of communications with Kathmandu. This party was intercepted. Hasti Dal Shah, the ablest Nepalese Army commander in this sector, was killed in the first moments of the battle. The Nepalese Army suffered terrible losses. When word of this disaster reached the defenders at Almora, they were stunned. The British closed in on Almora and the Nepalese Army was unable to prevent the British advance. Subsequently, the British managed to establish gun positions within seventy yards of the gate of the fort at Almora and the Brtish artillery demolished the walls of the fort at point blank range. Bam Shah surrendered Almora on 27th Arpil of 1815.

Soldier Morale

The final Nepalese Army success of this period was in a way the most devastating to the opposition's morale. On 17th February word reached Martindell at Jaithak of the approach of a small party of two hundred Nepalese Army reinforcements moving from Malaon to Jaithak. Lieutenant Young with some two thousand irregulars was sent out to intercept them. Contact was made, and the Nepalese Army was surrounded. The Nepalese realized that there was little hope of victory, so they discussed their next move and decided to sell themselves dearly rather than surrender. With Khukuri in hand they charged the irregulars, even though they were outnumbered ten to one. The irregulars broke before them, their morale shattered. From that time on the Nepalese Army treated the irregulars with contempt and whenever they encountered a force of irregulars, no matter how strong, they charged. Regardless of numbers, the irregulars were never once able to withstand the hill men and their Khukuris. By the same token, a strong sense of mutual admiration started to take hold between the British regulars and the Nepalese.

 

Second Battle of Malaon and Jythak 1815 AD

The second battle of Malaon and Jaithak cut the Nepalese Army lines of communication between Central Nepal and the Far West. It also sealed the fate of Kazi Amar singh Thapa at Malaon and Ranajor Singh Thapa at Jaithak. At Malaon, now Major-General Ochterlony had moved with extreme care summoning reinforcements and heavy guns from Delhi until his total attack force consisted of over ten thousand men well-equipped with heavy cannon.

Kazi Amar Singh Thapa’s position in the Malaon Hills depended on Bilaspur in the lowlands for his food supplies, and the nature of the hills forced him to spread his forces very thin in an attempt to defend every vantage point. Ochterlony cut off the supply of food from Bilaspur and then turned his attention to the intricate network of defensive posts that were designed to withstand any frontal assault. Although rear fortifications supported these posts, none could withstand a long cannonade by heavy guns. Because Ochterlony had sufficient troops to attack and overwhelm several positions simultaneously, the thinly spread Nepalese defences could be dangerously divided.

Ochterlony chose his target, a point on the ridge, and then proceeded to move slowly, consolidating each position that he took, and allowing the pioneers time to build roads so that the heavy guns could be moved forward to support each attack. After a series of carefully planned and executed moves, he succeeded in establishing a position on the crest of Deothal, not even one thousand yards from Kazi Amar Singh Thapa’s main fort at Malaon. The old warrior Bhakti Thapa valiantly led assault after assault on this position, but he died and the position did not fall. Immensely impressed by Bhakti's sustained courage against impossible odds, the British made the well appreciated and honorable gesture of returning his body with full military honours. The British superiority in numbers made it inevitable that they would be able to establish themselves and their heavy guns on a vantage point within range of Ranajor Singh’s fortifications, sooner or later.

Both Kazi Amar Singh Thapa and Ranajor Singh Thapa were thus hemmed in and looking down the barrels of the British guns when Bam Shah’s letter arrived, announcing the fall of Almora. Although the old commander was still reluctant to surrender, Kazi Amar Singh Thapa at last saw the hopelessness of the situation and, compelled by circumstances and the British guns, surrendered with honour for both himself and Ranajor Singh. The Nepalese Army positions in the Far West were turned over to the British on 15th of May 1815.

Second Campaign - Deployment of Nepalese Troops and the British Offensive 1815 AD

The outstretched Nepalese Army was defeated on the Western front i.e. Gadhawal and Kumaun area. Ochterlony had finally outfoxed Bada Kaji Amar Singh Thapa. He was the only successful British Commander in the first Nepal-Company campaign. British India appointed him as the Main Operational Commander in the second offensive on the Bharatpur-Makawanpur-Hariharpur front.

Colonel Kelly and Colonel O’Hollorah followed the river Bagmati to reach Hariharpur Gadhi. Some of the heads of villagers were bribed for sensitive information about the defensive positions in the area of Hariharpur Gadhi.The information seriously compromised the Nepalese defences. Secret routes would have given the enemy advantage even if they were able to get only a battalion through. But the British were able to advance with more than a brigade’s strength.

Colonel Kelly and Colonel O’Hollorah launched their attack from two different directions on 29th February. Many Nepalese lost their lives. Kaji Ranajor Thapa withdrew to Sindhuli Gadhi to link up with Bada Kaji Amarsingh Thapa. The British troops did not approach Sindhuli Gadhi and fell back to Makawanpur by the end of March 1815 AD. Two days later the ratified treaty was handed over to the British in Makawanpur.

The British had given a 15 day ultimatum to Nepal to ratify a treaty on 28th November. But the points of the treaty were very difficult for Nepal to ratify quickly. The delay provided the excuse for the British to commence the second military campaign against Nepal. Colonel Bhaktabarsingh Thapa, another brother of Bhimsen Thapa, had been appointed as Sector Commander for defensive battles for the area from Bijaypur to Sindhuli Gadhi in the first campaign. In this second campaign, Bada Kaji Amarsingh Thapa was detailed as Sector Commander for Sindhuli Gadhi and the eastern front. Colonel Bhaktabarsingh Thapa was manning his headquaters at Makawanpur Gadhi. Major General David Ochterlony, was the overal commander against Nepal with a huge nubmer of British troops to assault the fronts including Upardang Gadhi, Sinchyang Gadhi, Kandrang Gadhi, Makawanpur Gadhi and Hariharpur Gadhi.

The Nepalese troops were eventually driven back from Hariharpur Gadhi after a big battle. The situation became very critical for Nepal and the British could have reached Kathmandu if the signing of the treaty was delayed any further. Major General David Ochterlony settled down to receive the treaty, signed by Nepal Durbar through Chandra Sekhar Upadhyaya, Pandit Gajaraj Mishra and finally though Bhaktabarsingh Thapa. The war ended with the Treaty of Sugauli and Nepal succeeded in remaining independent but lost about half her territory. The river Mechi became the new Eastern border and the Mahakali the Western boundary of Nepal.

Foreign Involvements

  • Royal Nepal Army in Indian Sepoy Mutiny
  • Royal Nepal Army in The First World War 1914-1918
  • Royal Nepal Army in Waziristhan War
  • Royal Nepal Army in Afghan War –1919
  • Royal Nepal Army in The Second World War
  • Royal Nepal Army in Hyderbad Action - 1948